March 24th, 2011
“As a partridge that broods but does not hatch”, so shall
wicked political leaders and their nations be overthrown in
the Era of the Gentiles, Atonement and the Brotherhood of
The Earth belongs to the Lord of Hosts; men are only
sojourners here and shall exit sooner or later. So, why all
these noises that always end in the wilderness? The Galilee
of the Gentiles will soon be in place.
For too long, Western states tolerated blatant autocracy in
the Arab world, especially in Egypt, Tunisia, Yemen, Libya,
Algeria, Morocco, Bahrain, Iraq, and Syria and in other
ancient Arab regimes.
In his book on “Authority in The Modern State’ (1919),
Harold Laski posited the role of mass participation in the
governance of modern society. The autocratic rule in the
Arab world is the cause of the recent upheavals in the
Middle East. Western states should have insisted on
democratic systems in the Arab world after the inauguration
of the United Nations Organisation.
Western states failed to display the necessary foresight in
their diplomacy of Arab political conditioning. Human
faculties regulating statecraft yielded to monarchical
affiliations in the Middle East
Absolutism in governance and medieval traditions were
tolerated by nations that knew better. Current European
thought contradicts its imperial history, in which hegemonic
pursuits did not permit concerns for people in the colonies.
The spirit of jingo is discernible among the William Hague
team at the British Foreign Office. However, they have not
told the House of Commons the exact line and surface
integrals of the war efforts by the Allied forces.
The African leaders are guiltier about the state of
statecraft in Africa. The Organisation of African Unity was
an Assembly of leaders, who did not see it fit to criticize
the other governments, even when atrocities were being
committed in neighbouring African States.
Some of the African leaders like Mobutu Sese Sekou, Emperor
Haile Selasie, Sani Abacha and Hosni Mubarak of Egypt,
stashed away their national wealth in European banks. As a
result, this weakened their ability to speak out on
African leaders should have long called Kaddafi to order.
They silently tolerated his arrogance and flamboyance. This
is why no leader is supporting him, now that his cup is
Nations are adroit at identifying their national
The reasons why the West had been looking the other way, in
most cases, can be attributed to the oil politics of OPEC
nations, obvious Western strategic interests, the stationing
of troops in strategic locations in the Middle East and the
manipulation of some Arab leaders, whose sins were easily
forgiven, even in the face of gross human rights and
humanitarian violations against the citizens of those
Since the First Arab revolution, orchestrated by the Baath
Socialist Movement, there has simmered in the consciousness
of Arab intellectuals, a need to change the feudal
structures in the governance of Arab states.
Their revolutionary efforts were frustrated by the
well-funded intelligence outfits that decimated their
organisations, forcing many of their leaders into exile and
many intellectuals were thrown into prison.
What has happened in most Arab states is the saturation of
despondency. What started in Tunisia as a demonstration by
political mal-contents, later spread through the Arab world.
In the Era of the Gentiles, Atonement and the Brotherhood of
Man, countries will be desolate, cities will be burned with
fire and kings will be overthrown by strangers.
Prince Hassan of Jordan attempted successfully to undertake
an intellectual, historical analysis of the remote and
immediate causes of the turmoil in the Arab nations.
He called for a regional conference, which should include
the “refusniks” to discuss issues concerning security, which
must be based on legality, as well as the examination of
diversity and pluralism in Arab states. Such an effort
should shape an authentic vision for further understanding
the complex Arab problems.
It is true that autocracy has destroyed any efforts at
erecting democratic institutions in the Arab world.
Feudalism, which has become anachronistic, was held up by
military intelligence, legislative props and connivance by
Diplomatic and political relations blossomed between, Tony
Blair and Kaddafi. Other Arab leaders became immuned from
criticism, even by the Western press. This encouraged
autocracy in the Arab world.
Kaddafi got away with the bombing of the plane over
Lockerbie killing over 200 innocent people. I still do not
accept the reasons for the release of the “alleged”
intelligence officer, who carried out the operation.
The Arab League and the United Nations have been under
supine leaders, which weakened the enforcement of
international law, especially during the presidency of
In the concrete case of the UN and its Libyan resolution, it
is important to observe as follows:
It is true that Col. Kaddafi had used disproportionate force
against the opposition. It is true that Col. Kaddafi had
ruled Libya for over forty years and had constituted himself
into the Libyan institution with plenipotential authority,
who could not be criticized. As a result, the democratic
atmosphere has remained intimidating.
However, international law has not prescribed how long a
leader can rule his people. That is the business of
The United Nations may wish to introduce and pass a
resolution on the inadmissibility of leaders, who sit-tight
for years, without advancing the cause of their people. Such
situations lead to political and social upheavals within UN
member states, which invariably engage the attention of the
The United Nations should resume intellectual labour in
formulating new rules, conventions and declarations, which
the immediate post-Second World War did not foresee. The UN
has not advanced the progressive development of
International law, in any meaningful way, in the last ten
This can be seen from the reports of the CNN Senior UN
Correspondent, Mr. Richard Roth s’ files or better the lack
of them, since Mr. Banki Moon became Secretary-General. I
call Richard Roth as a witness!
The UN Resolution 1973 was not unanimously passed by all the
members of the Security Council. China and Russia abstained,
while Brazil also abstained. It could have been better, if
the General Assembly members, as a whole had voted on the
resolution. In future, there should be a democratic approach
to deciding on contentious international issues.
The claim by the British Foreign Secretary, Mr. Hague that
Arab states have strongly supported the “no fly zone,” was
later refuted by the Arab League Secretary-General, A. Mousa,
himself, a maverick, who had earlier
supported the no fly zone, but later reneged because he has
the ambition of contesting the Egyptian presidency. It will
be bad politics if the Egyptian voters see an Arab leader
who presided over the hanging of Saddam Hussein, overseeing
the destruction of an Arab state.
The criticism by the Arab League weakened the campaign
against Libya and the bombing inflamed the passions of Arabs
in many Arab states.
There was a remarkable double-speak in saying that no regime
change is envisaged, yet affirming the declaration that
“Kaddafi must go”.
The UN Security Council seems to have not taken cognizance
of Article 2(4) of the United Nations Charter, which states
that “All members must refrain in their international
relations from the threat or use of force against the
territorial integrity and political independence of any
state or in any other manner, inconsistent with the purposes
of the United Nations”.
Also, Article 2(7) of the UN Charter says that “Nothing
contained in this Charter shall authorize the United Nations
to intervene in matters which are essentially within the
domestic jurisdiction of any state.”
Now, the international legal question, which has remained
unresolved since 1945, is when does a matter remain
“essentially within the domestic jurisdiction of a state”?
When do such matters go beyond “the domestic jurisdiction of
Such tricky legal problems’ resolutions belong to the
progressive development of International law under the
imaginative leadership of the United Nations, which has not
been the case since Mr. Banki Moon became the UN
He has played a diminished role in world affairs since the
Should the United Nations stand by and watch dictatorial
regimes punish their citizens, who want to speak out against
the regime’s excesses and brutalities?
This decision as to what constitutes matters essentially
within the domestic jurisdiction of a state should be
subjected to a wider resolution by the General Assembly,
rather than the Security Council.
Such a broadly-based decision would convincingly reflect the
views of the “international community”, a term often used
with vacuous ambiguity.
What seem to miff some observers is the apparent double
standards that have been used in the present case. While the
Libyan and Bahrain events are on all fours, Libya has been
singled out for extraordinary confrontation, subjected to “a
scourge of war” which the UN Charter does not encourage.
A more imaginative way to deal with the Kaddafi-type regimes
is for all UN members to withdraw their diplomatic missions
and imposed economic embargo on such states.
States can not keep their diplomatic relations with
dictators, while condemning them over time!
It is difficult to decide to halt diplomatic relations with
Arab states that have oil and that are the crux of the
matter because of national interest considerations.
The problem of bombing a state to enforce UN resolutions is
that the civilians one aims to protect end up being killed
in frightening numbers like happened in Iraq, Afghanistan,
Kosovo, Vietnam and Pakistan.
The destruction that results from such bombings affect the
citizens for very long. The Japanese are still suffering
from the bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The South East
of Nigeria has still not been cleared of all bombs dropped
during the Biafra war. Iraq, Cambodia, Pakistan are still to
be cleared of mines.
We must not allow the devil to suggest punitive actions
against social humans. The destruction of the Sons and
Daughters of God remains the devil’s sworn occupation on
Earth. We may inadvertently be aiding and abetting his
Kaddafi’s demagogic musings will only infuriate his
adversaries but the people, who will suffer and are already
suffering, are the innocent people, victims of geo-political
The tumult in the Arab world as a result of the bombardment
of Libya should have been anticipated. The hurried eagerness
to create a no-fly zone and commence military action could
lead to the termination of the Kaddafi regime.
The question that would eventually be resolved in a long
discussion is whether Libya would revert to its federal
kingdoms of Tripolitania, Cyrenaica and Fezzan. Who will
control the oil gushes at Zelten, Dahra and Beida?
Libya has been dominated by Egyptians, Phoenicians, Greeks,
Romans, Vandals, Byzantines, Arabs, Turks and by Italians
(1911-12). During the occupation, Italy ruthlessly committed
war crimes against the Libyan people, for which it recently
paid billions of dollars to Libya. Italy regularly
repatriated Libyans fleeing the Kaddafi regime. The
new-found love for Libyan citizens in Benghazi is hard to
After World War 11, the Big Powers could not agree on how to
partition Libya and so in December, 1951, Libya, a
Federation, became an independent state. The treaty of
friendship and alliance, which was signed between Libya and
Britain in 1953, failed to secure a review in 1964. This led
to the evacuation of British and American troops.
Will history repeat itself in Libya after Muamar Kaddafi?
History itself and no other person or government has the
answer. Will it now be the practice in international
relations that states can be bombed after a resolution of a
fraction of member of the Security Council? History and only
the future will tell. By the way, does the Security Council
now recognize “rebels” in international law?
How about ETA, the IRA, the Tupamaros, Chechnya rebels, the
Tigers? A new disorder is inadvertently being ushered into
Professor Dr. Emmanuel Omoh Esiemokhai, a Writer and
Academic is the President of the proposed Afemai University,
Fugar, Edo State, Nigeria.